The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Business Administration is joint degree program to promote advanced scholarship and stimulate research on management solutions. It is offered by the John Molson School of Business (JMSB) in conjunction with three other Montreal-based universities: École des Hautes Études Commerciales de Montréal, the business school affiliated with the Université de Montréal McGill University Université du Québec à Montréal This joint PhD degree program has been offered since 1976. It offers Doctoral students the opportunity to obtain the greatest possible expertise in their chosen field or specialization. Privileges include access to more than 300 highly qualified faculty members and world-renowned researchers. Many of these professors are leading scholars with advanced degrees from prestigious academic and research institutions. They are widely published in academic journals and texts and sit on the boards of many learned societies. PhD courses are cross-listed, meaning students have the opportunity to take courses at all four affiliated institutions. The bilingual nature of the joint PhD program is one of its greatest strengths. The program serves as a meeting place for scholarship from diverse research traditions in North American and European cultures. This makes the program one of the leading destinations for management studies in Canada. Students are not required to be bilingual but will benefit most if they are able to understand both English and French when written and spoken.